Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa. It is a major phyto-cannabinoid of the Cannabis plant's extract that binds to a wide variety of physiological targets of the endocannabinoid system within the body. It displays a plethora of actions including; mood elevation, decreased stress and anxiety, assists insomnia, anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, antipsychotic, and anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant and neuroprotective properties. Additionally: anti-allergic, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilatation, antineoplastic effects, anxiolytic, analgesic, antioxidant, and antispasmodic. CBD may act to decrease both bone reabsorption and cancer cell proliferation. CBD has the ability to induce tumor regression in human lung cancer cell lines. PPAR-gamma activation degrades amyloid-beta plaque, a key molecule linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
Once CBD enters circulation it easily passes the blood–brain barrier and shows a prolonged elimination; its terminal half-life is about 9 hours.
Cannabigerol (CBG) Properties: Antiinflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal, Reduces Pain, Nausia, and Cancer Cell Proliferation. Therapeutic effect directly to CB1 and CB2 receptors.
Cannabichromene (CBC) Properties: Antiinflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal.
Cannabinol (CBN) Properties: Antioxidant, Antispasm, Sedative, Antibiotic, Antiinflammation.
Endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, are naturally occurring, lipid-based neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the body that send signals between nerve cells. Endocannabinoids help with various bodily functions. The body produces them as necessary, which makes it difficult to know what typical levels are.
Cannabinoid receptors are on the surface of cells throughout the body. Endocannabinoids attach or bind to the receptors, which sends a message to the ECS to kick-start a response.
The two primary cannabinoid receptors are present throughout the body:
Endocannabinoids may target CB1 receptors in a spinal nerve to relieve pain or bind to a CB2 receptor in an immune cell, which signals that the body is experiencing inflammation. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is precise. For example, if body temperature is out of the normal range, the ECS regulates it without altering other processes. Once the ECS brings the body back into balance, the enzymes break down the cannabinoids to prevent overcorrecting the problem.
Executives in Congress had interests in many square miles of forestry land that hemp directly competed with in the paper, rope, and textile industries. Pharmaceutical companies purported that hemp had no medicinal uses because it's naturally occurring chemicals; THC and CBD could not be patented and competed directly with their manufactured drug compounds they could own rights to. Hemp was banned for the personal financial interests of public officials and influential, campaign-donating, lobbying pharmaceutical companies' financial interests.
After the USDA re-legalized hemp in the Farm Bill of 2018, each state was given responsibility of implementing their own systems for registering, monitoring, testing, and taxing hemp with fairly broad guidelines at the federal level. Each harvest must simply be lab tested to prove it has less than 0.3% THC.
The eighty years hemp was banned from industrial use, commercial processors moved on and passed on. Now, not much industrial equipment exists and is being reinvented slowly. Most hemp grown for flower is still planted by hand. The fiber and grain sectors are not very profitable because the industry hasn't grown much of a demand or ability to process this dense fiber. We've been using substitutes for the grain and fiber over the last 80 years, like rainforest trees, so there's not a huge demand yet and it will require a paradigm shift as we become more environmentally conscious.